Fish farming as a business in Nigeria
Fish farming, or pisciculture, is one of the oldest livestock and zootechnical activities since it was practiced by ancient peoples, such as the Chinese many centuries ago.
Fish farming is one of the most expanding and in-demand livestock activities, currently in Nigeria.
Furthermore, with the increase in consumption, the fish produced is sold on the retail market very easily.
To get an idea, in general, fish consumption demand is very high, the country tends to import this product because national production is not enough.
So, starting fish farming in Nigeria is very lucrative.
It is that field provides a viable income source for fish farmers in Nigeria.
In this post, a detailed evaluation of fish farming and how to start profitable fish farming in Nigeria will be discussed.
Keywords: Fish reproduction, fish farm, fish farming.
Fish farming is an economic activity that requires a consistent investment, but not very high, according to the production to be achieved and the type of fish to be created.
Fish farming takes place in ponds or lakes where the producer can have total control of the creation, it must be practiced with strict animal husbandry standards and constant supervision by specialists.
Many factors lead to successful fish farming in Nigeria among which we can mention:
- Choosing the correct location, according to the fish to be created.
- The correct choice of species to be created.
- The construction of adequate facilities (tanks, and facilities in general).
- Provision of adequate food rations, so there is a good conversion of these foods into the actual weight in the fish.
- Hygiene and disease control.
- Collection and treatment of water.
- The right conditions for the preparation and transport of products.
- Efficient marketing channels.
Requirements for Successful Fish Farming Business in Nigeria
Below are some things to consider before starting fish farming business in Nigeria so as to make profit.
Market study: Carry out a fish farming market study evaluating the consumer profile, not only of local consumers but also of consumers from all over the world, because the possibilities of expanding sales are limitless.
It’s also important to look at consumer trends, consumer behavior, expanding product possibilities, pricing, trade associations, and other factors.
Evaluate parenting: For the application of a fish farming business, at first, the producer must consider whether there are effective conditions to develop it, since, for it to be profitable, it must require a considerable initial investment in facilities, equipment, and technical and market knowledge.
Competitors: As with any business, competition should be viewed as a standard for quality, price, and type of fish produced.
As well as the reproduction techniques used by other fish farming establishments.
The profitable fish species: There are fish that are more accepted by consumers and therefore are sold more, for example, Titus, Catfish, and Shawa, these have very high demand in Nigeria.
These fish may have different techniques for creation, costs, and different investments.
Location: The quality of the water, the constant supply of clean water, and the favorable climate are determining factors for the choice of location.
Therefore, nurseries in the deployment area should be planned with site selection work based on hydrological and meteorological data.
The place for the construction of ponds should be chosen to facilitate the distribution and sale of fish.
Topography: The topography influences the movement of soil in buildings and therefore it is advisable to choose a leveled ground to reduce the work with landslides.
Soil: Good soil conditions for building the tanks are found among sandy clay. Good soil structure allows the tank to be dug without leakages.
Water: It is important to have abundant and quality water with a depth of 1.5 m.
Installation Types: Nurseries or tanks that are created are reservoirs that have been dug into the natural soil and have drainage and supply systems.
Fish reproduction: To promote the breeding of fish, it is necessary to separate the pairs of each species, keeping them in an isolated area of the artificial lake or in water tanks or tanks with a thousand liters of water, which leaves them between 15 and 30 days together.
The eggs should be separated in another tank until one month old, which can then be fixed in the main lake.
Fish feed: Fish feeding should be done 3 to 5 times per day.
It is necessary to give specific feeding, and the fish must receive an improved feeding to accelerate growth.
Living things, such as, for example, crustaceans, born in the lake are also used to feed the fish.
After six months of fish life, they can be subjected to the fattening process, being placed in an isolated area of the lake and receiving large amounts of food between 5 and 8 times a day, which stimulates the development of animal meat.
Costs: The investment to get started in the fish breeding business can be high at the beginning.
You require a large space where you can place the breeding tanks.
Likewise, investment is required in the structure of the ponds, water of very high quality, and purity.
Also, the hiring of personnel specialized in pisciculture and fish farming is required.
Similarly, you will require investment in equipment, fish feed, substrates, advertising, and marketing as well as the required permits.
Cost of Starting Fish Pond Business in Nigeria
To start fish farming in Nigeria requires a reasonable amount of capital.
Be in cement built pond, plastic tanks pond or rubber mat pond, it takes about N400,000 to N800,000 to build a fish pond in Nigeria and start fish farming business in Nigeria.
The cost of starting fish farming business in Nigeria stated above cover both cost of construction of fish pond and buying of fingerlings (baby fish) in Nigeria.
Problems & Challenges of Fish Farming Business in Nigeria
One of the biggest challenges in fish farming is investment because there is a need for large investments in infrastructure to get the fish farm off the ground.
The other problem is the sustainability of fish farming over time.
Because if you are not constant, persevering and patient, you’ll have a great loss of money.
Investment is not only required in money, but also in time and presence.
If you have set up a fish farm, you have to dedicate time and effort to bring it forward.